Secondary Hypertension

~10% of cases of hypertension are secondary to another disease process (1). Secondary hypertension should be evaluated in young patients with otherwise-unexplained hypertension or patients with difficult-to-control hypertension. The most common etiologies are: Hyperthyroidism Hyperaldosteronism Hypercalcemia Obstructive Sleep Apnea Renovascular Hypertension Chronic Kidney Disease Coarctation of the Aorta Cushing Syndrome PheoChromocytoma One mnemonic to rememberContinue reading “Secondary Hypertension”

Chronic Kidney Disease

Stages (1) Stage I: GFR ≥ 90 mL/min Stage II: GFR 60-89 mL/min Stage IIIa: GFR 45-59 mL/min Stage IIIb: GFR 30-44 mL/min Stage IV: GFR 15-29 mL/min Stage V: GFR <15 mL/min Common Causes Diabetes mellitus Hypertension Rarer Causes Inherited Disorders Polycystic Kidney Disease Tubulointerstitial Disease Decreased Renal Mass Renal Agenesis Nephrectomy Severe or RecurrentContinue reading “Chronic Kidney Disease”