Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acid is a commonly obtained laboratory marker. The differential diagnosis for a patient with a lactic acidosis is broad. Differentiating these etiologies requires an understanding of the underlying biochemical pathways. Type A (Hypoxic) Tissue Hypoxia This is the most common cause of lactic acidosis, especially in patients with shock When tissue is not receivingContinue reading “Lactic Acidosis”

Hypercalcemia

Corrected Ca2+ = Measured Ca2++ 0.8 (4 – Albumin) Signs & Symptoms Typically seen when Calcium levels are > 12.0 mg/dL “Stones, bones, groans, psychiatric overtones“ Nephrolithiasis Bone pain Abdominal pain Psychosis/altered mental status Increased urination and thirst EKG: Shortened QT interval (1) Hormonal Control Calcitonin: Decreases serum Ca2+ and PO43- Synthesized by thyroid parafollicularContinue reading “Hypercalcemia”